Sunday, 1 February 2015

"Te Lucis Ante Terminum". Sung at Compline on Septuagesima Sunday.

"Te Lucis Ante Terminum."
Sung, tonight, at Compline
on Septuagesima Sunday.
Available on YouTube at

The following Text is taken from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia.

Te lucis ante terminum is an old Latin Hymn in Long Metre. It is the Hymn at Compline in The Roman Breviary.

The authorship, by Saint Ambrose of Milan, for which Pimont contends, is not admitted by The Benedictine Editors, or by Luigi Biraghi. The Hymn is found in a Hymnary, in Irish script (described by Clemens Blume in his Cursus, etc.) of the 8th- or Early-9th-Century; but the classical Prosody of its two Stanzas (Solita in the third line of the original Text is the only exception) suggests a much earlier origin. In this Hymnary, it is assigned, together with the Hymn Christe qui splendor et dies (also known as Christe qui lux es et dies), to Compline.

An earlier arrangement (as shown by the Rule of Caesarius of Arles, circa 502 A.D.), coupled with the Christe qui lux, the Hymn Christe precamur adnue, and assigned both to the "Twelfth Hour" of the Day for alternate recitation throughout the year. The later introduction of the Te lucis suggests a later origin.

The two Hymns, Te lucis and Christe qui lux, did not maintain everywhere the same relative position; the latter was used in Winter, the former in Summer and on Festivals; while many Cathedrals and Monasteries replaced the Te lucis, by the Christe qui lux, from the First Sunday of Lent to Passion Sunday or Holy Thursday - a custom followed by The Dominicans.

The old Breviary of The Carthusians used the Christe qui lux throughout the year. The Roman Breviary assigns the Te lucis daily throughout the year, except from Holy Thursday to the Friday after Easter, inclusively. Merati, in his notes on Galvanus's Thesaurus, says that it has always held, without variation, this place in The Roman Church. As it is sung daily, the Vatican Antiphonary gives it many Plainsong Settings for the varieties of Season and Rite (e.g. the nine Melodies, pp. 117–121, 131, 174, 356, 366).

The Text given below is the original version of the Hymn. It was altered by Pope Urban VIII. The 1974 Breviary of Pope Paul VI restores the earlier form of the first and last Verse, but replaces the second Verse with two additional Verses. Pope Urban's version is still used by some, especially since the Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum authorised continued use of The Roman Breviary in its 1962 Form. Most Monasteries adopted Pope Paul's Form in the 1970s, meaning the original version is seldom sung in Monasteries. The following translation is by J. M. Neale (1818–1866).

"Te Lucis Ante Terminum",
by Thomas Tallis.
Availabe on YouTube at

Te lucis ante terminum,
rerum Creator, poscimus,
ut solita clementia,
sis praesul ad custodiam.

Procul recedant somnia,
et noctium phantasmata:
hostemque nostrum comprime,
ne polluantur corpora.

Praesta, Pater omnipotens,
per Iesum Christum Dominum,
qui tecum in perpetuum
regnat cum Sancto Spiritu.

To Thee before the close of day,
Creator of the world, we Pray
That, with Thy wonted favour, Thou
Wouldst be our guard and keeper now.

From all ill dreams defend our sight,
From fears and terrors of the night;
Withhold from us our ghostly foe,
That spot of sin we may not know.

O Father, that we ask be done,
Through Jesus Christ, Thine Only Son,
Who, with The Holy Ghost and Thee,
Doth live and reign eternally.


The 1974 Revision replaces the second Strophe with the Text, Te corda nostra somnient,/ te per soporem sentiant,/ tuamque semper gloriam/ vicina luce concinant. Vitam salubrem tribue,/ nostrum calorem refice,/ taetram noctis caliginem/ tua collustret claritas.

This Text has frequently been set to music. The earliest is the Plainsong version found in The Liber Usualis (used as the opening of Benjamin Britten's "Curlew River"); another, from The Sarum Rite, is much used in England. Thomas Tallis and Henry Balfour Gardiner both composed memorable settings of the Text, among many others.

Septuagesima. Sunday, 1 February 2015.

Italic Text and Illustrations taken from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
1952 edition, with the kind permission of ST. BONAVENTURE PRESS

Septuagesima Sunday.
Station at Saint Laurence-without-the-Walls.

Privilege of the Second-Class.

Violet Vestments.

Roman Text is taken from "The Liturgical Year"
by Abbot Guéranger, O.S.B.
Volume 4.


Go you also into My Vineyard.

In order to understand fully the meaning of the Text of today's Mass, we must study it in connection with The Lessons of The Breviary, since, in The Church's mind, The Mass and The Divine Office form one whole.

The Lessons and Responses in The Night Office are taken this week from The Book of Genesis. In them is related the story of The Creation of the World and of man, of our first parents' fall and the promise of a Redeemer, followed by the murder of Abel and a record of the generations from Adam to Noah.

"In the beginning," we read, "God created Heaven and Earth and upon the Earth He made man . . . and He placed him in a garden of paradise to be mindful of it and tend it" (Third and Fourth Responses at Matins).

All this is a figure. Here is Saint Gregory's exposition. "The Kingdom of Heaven is compared to the proprietor who hires labourers to work in his vineyard. Who can be more justly represented as Head of a household than Our Creator, Who governs all creatures by His Providence and Who, just as a Master has servants in his house, has His Elect in this world, from the Just Abel to the last of His Chosen, destined to be born at the very end of time ?

De Profundis (Septuagesima Sunday, Tract).
Gregorian Chant notation from the Liber Usualis (1961), p. 499.
Latin lyrics sung by the Benedictine Monks
of Santo Domingo de Silos, Spain.
Available on YouTube at

The vineyard which He owns is His Church, while the labourers in this vineyard are all those who, with a true Faith, have set themselves, and urged others, to the task of doing good. By those who came at the first, as well as at the third, sixth and ninth hours, are meant the ancient people of the Hebrews, who, from the beginning of the world, striving in the persons of their Saints to serve God with a right Faith, ceased not, as it were, to work in cultivation of the vineyard.

But, at the eleventh hour, the Gentiles are called and to them are spoken the words: "Why stand ye here all the day, idle ?" (Third Nocturn). Thus, all are called to work in the Lord's vineyard, by sanctifying themselves and their neighbour in glorifying God, since sanctification consists in searching for our supreme happiness in Him, alone.

Adam failed in his task and God told him: "Because thou hast eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat, cursed is the Earth in thy work; with labour and toil shalt thou eat thereof all the days of thy life. Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee . . . In the sweat of thy face, shalt thou eat bread, till thou return to the Earth out of which thou was taken."

Septuagesima, 2008.
Gradual and Tract.
Edinburgh, Scotland.
Available on YouTube at

Being exiled from Eden," says Saint Augustine, "the first man involved all his descendants in the penalty of death and reprobation, being corrupted in the person of him from whom they sprung. The whole mass of condemned humanity was therefore, plunged in misery, enslaved and cast headlong from one evil to another" (Second Nocturn). "The sorrows of death surrounded me," says the Introit, and, as a matter of fact, it is in the Basilica of Saint Laurence-without-the-Walls, close to the cemetery at Rome, that the "Station" for this Sunday is made.

The Collect adds that we are "justly afflicted for our sins". In the Epistle, the Christian life is represented by Saint Paul as an arena, where a man must take pains and strive to carry off the prize, while the Gospel bears witness that the reward of eternal life is only given to those who work in God's vineyard, where work is hard and painful since the entrance of sin.

"O God", prays the Church, "grant to Thy people, who are called by the name of vines and harvests, that they may root out all thorns and briars, and bring forth good fruit in abundance" (Prayer on Holy Saturday, after the Eighth Prophecy).

The Sermon on Septuagesima Sunday
and getting ready for Lent.
Father speaks about the significance of Lent,
and the Fast, and why we Fast.
Getting ready for Lent.
Available on YouTube at

"In His wisdom", says Saint Gregory, "Almighty God preferred rather to bring good out of evil than never allow evil to occur". For God took pity on men and promised them a Second Adam, who, restoring the order disturbed by the First Adam, would allow them to regain Heaven, to which Adam had lost all right, when expelled from Eden, which was "the shadow of a better life" (Fourth Lesson). "Thou, O Lord, art our helper in time of tribulation" (Gradual); "with Thee, there is merciful forgiveness" (Tract).

"Make Thy face to shine upon Thy servant and save me in Thy mercy" (Communion). "Show Thy face, O Lord, and we shall be saved", the Church cries similarly in the Season of Advent, when calling upon her Lord. The truth is that God, "Who has wonderfully created man, has more wonderfully redeemed him" (Prayer on Holy Saturday after the First Prophecy), for "the creation of the world in the beginning was not a more excellent thing than the immolation of Christ our Passover at the end of time" (Prayer on Holy Saturday after the Ninth Prophecy).

This Mass, when studied in the light of Adam's fall, prepares our mind for beginning the Season of Septuagesima, and understanding the sublime character of the Paschal Mystery for which this Season prepares our hearts.

Español: El Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos es una abadía benedictina ubicada en el municipio de Santo Domingo de Silos, en la provincia de Burgos.
English: Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey is a Benedictine Monastery in the village of Santo Domingo de Silos in the Southern part of Burgos Province in Northern Spain. Its Cloister is a magnum opus of Romanesque art in Europe. [Editor: Listen to the Tract for Septuagesima Sunday, sung by the Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey. See, above.]
Deutsch: Kreuzgang - links eine der gedrehten Vierersäulen.
Photo: 25 July 2005.
Source: Own work.
Author: Juergen Kappenberg.
This File: 6 August 2007.
User: Schweigen
(Wikimedia Commons)

In response to the call of The Master, Who comes to seek us even in the depths wherein we are plunged, through our first parents' sin (Tract), let us go and work in the Lord's vineyard, or enter the arena and take-up with courage the struggle which will intensify during Lent.

The "Gloria in excelsis" is not said from this Sunday until Maundy Thursday, except when the Mass of a Feast is said.

From Septuagesima to Ash Wednesday, the Tract is said only on Sundays and Feast Days. On Ferias, when the Mass of the Sunday is said, the Gradual is said, without the Tract.

Every Parish Priest celebrates Mass for the people of his Parish.

Cloister, with twisted Columns, Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey, Burgos, Spain.
The Cloister is a "Magnum Opus" of Romanesque art in Europe. [Editor: Listen to the Tract for Septuagesima Sunday, sung by the Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey. See, above.]
Photo: 15 January 2006.
Source: Own work.
Author: Mark Somoza.
(Wikimedia Commons)


The Season of Septuagesima comprises the three weeks immediately preceding Lent. It forms one of the principal divisions of The Liturgical Year, and is, itself, divided into three parts, each part corresponding to a week: The first week is called Septuagesima; the second week is called Sexagesima; the third week is called Quinquagesima.

All three are named from their numerical reference to Lent, which, in the language of the Church, is called Quadragesima, that is, "Forty", because the great Feast of Easter is prepared for by the Holy Exercises of forty days.

The words Quinquagesima, Sexagesima, and Septuagesima, tells us of the same great Solemnity as looming in the distance, and as being the great object towards which the Church would have us now begin to turn all our thoughts, and desires, and devotion.

Kyrie for Septuagesima Sunday,
Mass XI (Orbis Factor),
Saint Andrew's Roman Catholic Church,
Edinburgh, Scotland.
Celebrant: Fr. Emerson, FSSP.
Available on YouTube at

Now, The Feast of Easter must be prepared for by Forty Days of Recollectedness and Penance. Those Forty Days are one of the principal Seasons of The Liturgical Year, and one of the most powerful means employed by The Church for exciting, in the hearts of her children, the spirit of their Christian Vocation. It is of the utmost importance that such a Season of Grace should produce its work in our Souls — the Renovation of the whole Spiritual Life. The Church, therefore, has instituted a preparation for The Holy Time of Lent.

She gives us the three weeks of Septuagesima, during which she withdraws us, as much as may be, from the noisy distractions of the world, in order that our hearts may be more readily impressed by the solemn warning she is to give us at the commencement of Lent by marking our foreheads with Ashes.

This prelude to The Holy Season of Lent was not known in the early ages of Christianity: Its institution would seem to have originated in The Greek Church. Besides the Six Sundays of Lent, on which by universal custom The Faithful never Fasted, the practice of this Church prohibited Fasting on the Saturdays, likewise; consequently, their Lent was short by twelve days of the Forty Days spent by Our Saviour doing penance in the desert. To make up the deficiency, they were obliged to begin their Lent so many days earlier.

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Saturday, 31 January 2015

She'll Have Fun, Fun, Fun, 'Til Her Daddy Takes The T-Bird Away.

1959 Ford Thunderbird Convertible in Brandywine Red (code R)
with Red vinyl seat bolsters and White vinyl inserts (code 9X).
Photo by User:Morven at the Fabulous Fords Forever show at Knotts Berry Farm,
Buena Park, California, USA on April 17, 2005.

Fun, Fun, Fun,
The Beach Boys,
Available on YouTube at

Saint John Bosco (1815 - 1888). Confessor. Feast Day 31 January.

From The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
unless otherwise stated.

Saint John Bosco.
Feast Day 31 January.


White Vestments.

Don BoscoII.jpg

English: Portrait of Saint John Bosco.
Français: Portrait de Saint Don Bosco.
Date: Unknown.
Source: Own work.
Author: Fontevrault.
(Wikimedia Commons)

His Religious Family is carrying on his work, so that, on 3 December 1933, Pope Pius XI could describe it as numbering: 19,000 Religious; 1,430 Houses of Education; 80 Religious Provinces; Thousands of Churches, Chapels, Boarding Schools and Boys' Clubs; 17 Territories in the Mission Field; Hundreds of thousands of pupils, and about a million Old Pupils; about as many Co-operators, who, after his own expression, "lengthen his arm".

In Heaven, Saint John Bosco prays for them and for those who have recourse to his intercession (Postcommunion).

The following Text and Illustrations are from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

John Bosco (Italian: Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco; 1815 – 1888), popularly known as Don Bosco, was an Italian Roman Catholic Priest of The Latin Church, educator and writer of the 19th-Century. While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the effects of industrialisation and urbanisation, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street childrenjuvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth.

He developed teaching methods based on love, rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System. A follower of the Spirituality and Philosophy of Saint Francis de Sales, John Bosco dedicated his works to him, when he founded The Salesians of Don Bosco, based in Turin.

File:Don boscojf.JPG

Saint John Bosco Parish Church, 
Makati City, Philippines[1].
Photo: 18 May 2012.
Source: Own work.
Author: Ramon FVelasquez.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Together with Maria Domenica Mazzarello, he founded The Institute of the Daughters of Mary, Help of Christians, a Religious Congregation of Nuns dedicated to the care and education of poor girls.

In 1876, John Bosco founded a movement of Laity, The Association of Salesian Co-operators, with the same Educational Mission to the Poor. In 1875, he began to publish The Salesian Bulletin. The Bulletin has remained in continuous publication, and is currently published in fifty different editions and thirty languages.

Saint John Bosco established a network of Organisations and Centres to carry on his work. Following his posthumous Beatification, in 1929, he was Canonised as a Saint in The Roman Catholic Church by Pope Pius XI in 1934.

St Andrew Daily Missal (Traditional Mass)

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Friday, 30 January 2015

Saint Martina. Feast Day, Today, 30 January. Virgin And Martyr.

Roman Text is from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

Italic Text is from "The Liturgical Year",
by Abbot Guéranger, O.S.B.

Book II.
Fourth Edition.
Volume 3.

Bold Italic Text is taken from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal.

Madonna and Child with Saint Martina and Saint Agnes.
Artist: El Greco (1541–1614).
Date: 1597-1599.
Current location: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.,
United States of America.
Source: [1]
(Wikimedia Commons)

Martina of Rome was a Roman Martyr, under Emperor Alexander Severus. She is a Patron Saint of Rome.

She was Martyred in 226 A.D., according to some authorities, more probably in 228 A.D., under the Pontificate of Pope Urban I, according to others. The daughter of an ex-Consul, and orphaned at an early age, she so openly testified to her Christian Faith that she could not escape the persecutions under Alexander Severus. Arrested and commanded to return to idolatry, she refused, whereupon she was subjected to various tortures and was finally beheaded.

The Relics of Martina were discovered on 25 October 1634, by the painter Pietro da Cortona, in a Crypt of Santi Luca e Martina, situated near the Mamertine Prison and Dedicated to the Saint.[1]

Pope Urban VIII, who occupied The Holy See at that time, had the Church repaired and, it would seem, composed the Hymns which are sung at her Office.

Her Feast Day is 30 January.

The Church of Santi Luca e Martina, Rome.
Photo: March 2006.
Source: Own work.
Author: Panairjdde (FlagUploader).
(Wikimedia Commons)

A Fourth Roman Virgin, wearing on her brow a Martyr's Crown, comes today to share the honours given to Agnes, Emerentiana, and Prisca, and offer her Martyr's Palm to The Lamb.

Her name is Martina, which the pagans were wont to give to their daughters in honour of their god of war. Her Sacred Relics repose at the foot of The Capitoline Hill, in the ancient temple of Mars, which has now become the beautiful Church of Saint Martina.

The Holy Ambition to render herself worthy of Him, Whom she had chosen as her Divine Spouse, gave her courage to suffer torments and death for His sake; so that, of her, as of the rest of the Martyrs, we may say those words of The Liturgy, "she washed her robes in The Blood of The Lamb". Our Emmanuel is "the mighty God, the Lord that is mighty in war", not, like the Mars of the pagans, needing  the sword to win his battles.

He vanquishes his enemies by meekness, patience, and innocence, as in the Martyrdom of today's Saint, whose victory was grander than was ever won by Rome's boasted warriors.

This illustrious Virgin, who is one of the Patrons of the City of Rome, is honoured by having her praises sung by one of the Popes. It was Pope Urban VIII who wrote the Hymns which are recited on her Feast, and which we subjoin to the Lessons which recount the glorious combats of our Saint.

English: Interior of the 
Church of Santi Luca e Martina, Rome.
Architect was 
Italiano: Chiesa dei Santi Luca e Martina, Roma. Interno.
Architetto: Pietro da Cortona.
This File: 12 February 2006.
User: Torvindus.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Saint Martina.
Virgin and Martyr.
Feast Day 30 January.


Red Vestments.

The Cycle makes us honour today a Virgin, who, by her constancy in the midst of the most atrocious torments, bore witness before all (Introit) to The Divinity of Christ, her Spouse (Gospel). "I  am a Christian," she declares to her executioners, "and I confess Jesus Christ."

The Epistle puts on her lips the words of Wisdom: "Lord, my Saviour, Thou hast become my help and protector." And she, herself, said, in the midst of her sufferings: "I love my Lord Jesus Christ, Who strengthens me."

Saint Martina was beheaded in 228 A.D., and joined in Heaven the train of Virgins who surround The Divine King (Alleluia). Her Remains rest in a former temple of Mars, transformed into a Church, which bears the name of this Virgin, whose name recalls that of the god of war.

Let us arm ourselves, to defend the Divinity of Jesus, with love of Purity.

Mass: Loquébar.

St Andrew Daily Missal (Traditional Mass)

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Wieskirche, Bavaria, Germany.

Text and Illustrations from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

English: Wies Church, Bavaria, Germany.
Deutsch: Wieskirche, Bayern, Deutschland.
Photo: 17 December 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Mattana.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Pilgrimage Church of Wies (German: Wieskirche) is an oval Rococo Church, designed in the Late-1740s by Dominikus Zimmermann, who lived nearby for the last eleven years of his life. It is located in the foothills of the Alps, in the municipality of Steingaden, in the Weilheim-Schongau district, Bavaria, Germany.

English: Chapel and Church, Wies, Bavaria, Germany.
Deutsch: Kapelle mit Wieskirche, Steingaden, Bavaria, Germany.
Photo: 14 December 2005.
Source: Own work.
Author: Flodur63.
(Wikimedia Commons)

It is said that, in 1738, tears were seen on a dilapidated wooden figure of The Scourged Saviour. This Miracle resulted in a Pilgrimage rush to see the sculpture. In 1740, a small Chapel was built to house the statue, but it was soon realised that the building would be too small for the number of Pilgrims it attracted, and, so, Steingaden Abbey decided to commission a separate Shrine.

Many who have Prayed in front of the statue of Jesus, on the High Altar, have claimed that people have been miraculously cured of their diseases, which has made this Church even more of a Pilgrimage site.

English: The Scourged Saviour, in its own separate Chapel.
Deutsch: Gnadenbild des gegeißelten Heilandes im Altar der Wieskirch.
Photo: 20 October 2012.
Source: Own work.
Author: Harro52.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Construction took place between 1745 and 1754, and the Interior was decorated with frescoes and with stucco work, in the tradition of the Wessobrunner School. "Everything was done throughout the Church to make the Supernatural visible. Sculpture and murals combined to unleash The Divine in visible form".

English: Wies Church, Bavaria, Germany.
Deutsch: Wieskirche, Bayern, Deutschland.
Photo: June 2005.
Source: Own work.
Author: Pipimaru.
(Wikimedia Commons)

There is a popular belief that the Bavarian Government planned to sell, or demolish, the Rococo masterpiece during the secularisation of Bavaria, at the beginning of the 19th-Century, and that only protests from the local farmers saved it from destruction.

Available sources, however, document that the responsible State Commission clearly advocated the continuation of Wies as a Pilgrimage site, even in spite of economic objections from the Abbot of Steingaden.

The Wieskirche was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983 and underwent extensive restoration between 1985 and 1991.

English: The Pulpit, Wies Church, Bavaria, Germany.
Deutsch: Wieskirche, Bayern, Deutschland.
Photo: 17 December 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Mattana.
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: The High Altar,
Wies Church, Bavaria, Germany.
Deutsch: Wieskirche, Bayern, Deutschland.
Photo: 17 December 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Mattana.
(Wikimedia Commons)

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Thursday, 29 January 2015

Bayeux Cathedral, Normandy, France.

Text from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

English: The Nave, Notre Dame de Bayeux Cathedral, France.
Français: Le nef de la Notre Dame de Bayeux.
Photo: 22 July 2011.
Source: Own work.
Author: Anton Bielousov.
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: Bayeux Cathedral, Normandy, France.
Français: Cathédrale de Bayeux (classé, 1862).
Photo: 21 July 2013.
Source: Own work.
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: Bayeux Cathedral, Calvados, Normandy, France.
The High Altar, with The Nave in the backgound.
Français: Notre-Dame de Bayeux, Calvados, Normandie, France.
L'autel majeur néo-classique, avec la nef en arrière-plan.
Photo: 8 September 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: Tango7174.
(Wikimedia Commons)

EnglishBayeux Tapestry - Scene 23:
Harold swearing an Oath on Holy Relics to William, Duke of Normandy.
(Where Harold made an Oath to Duke William).
Français: Tapisserie de Bayeux - Scène 23 :
Harold prête serment à Guillaume, duc de Normandie, sur deux reliquaires.
(Ici Harold prête serment au duc Guillaume).
Photo: 7 March 2013.
Source: Own work.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Bayeux Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Bayeux) is a Norman-Romanesque Cathedral, located in the Town of Bayeux. It is the Seat of the Bishop of Bayeux. It was the original home of the Bayeux Tapestry and is a National Monument of France.

English: Notre-Dame de Bayeux Cathedral's Central Tower.
Français: La tour centrale de la cathédrale Notre-Dame de Bayeux, vue du sud-est.
Photo: 9 December 2011.
Source: Own work.
Author: LeCardinal.
© LeCardinal, CC-BY
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: Bayeux Historic Centre: Office of Tourism and Bayeux Cathedral.
Français: Centre ville historique de Bayeux: l'office de tourisme et cathedral.
Русский: Исторический центр Байё.
Photo: 24 July 2011.
Source: Own work.
Author: Anton Bielousov.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The site is an ancient one and was once occupied by Roman Sanctuaries. The present Cathedral was Consecrated on 14 July 1077, in the presence of William, Duke of Normandy and King of England. It was here that William forced Harold Godwinson to take the Oath, the breaking of which led to the Norman Conquest of England.

The Nave,
Bayeux Cathedral, France.
Photo: 24 June 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Gerpsych.
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: Bayeux Cathedral, Calvados, Normandie, France. Gothic choir.
Français: Notre-Dame de Bayeux, Calvados, Normandie, France. Le chœur gothique.
Photo: 8 September 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: Tango7174.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Following serious damage to the Cathedral in the 12th-Century, the Cathedral was rebuilt in the Gothic Style, which is most notable in The Crossing Tower, Transepts and East End. However, despite The Crossing Tower having been started in the 15th-Century, it was not completed until the 19th-Century.

The Great West Door,
Bayeux Cathedral,
Normandy, France.
Date: 5 January 2012.
Source: Own work.
Author: KNHaw.

English: Northern Window of the Transept of Bayeux Cathedral.
Stained-Glass Window made by Étienne Thevenot in 1848.
Français: Verrière nord du transept de la cathédrale Notre-Dame de Bayeux.
Vitrail d'Étienne Thevenot réalisé en 1848.
Photo: 8 April 2012.
Source: Own work.
Author: © Guillaume Piolle / CC-BY-3.0.
(Wikimedia Commons)

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